In “Transcribing DNA into RNA”, we discussed the transcription of DNA into RNA, and in “Translating RNA into Protein”, we examined the translation of RNA into a chain of amino acids for the construction of proteins. We can view these two processes as a single step in which we directly translate a DNA string into a protein string, thus calling for a DNA codon table.
When researchers discover a new protein, they would like to infer the strand of mRNA from which this protein could have been translated, thus allowing them to locate genes associated with this protein on the genome.
As mentioned in “Translating RNA into Protein”, proteins perform every practical function in the cell. A structural and functional unit of the protein is a protein domain: in terms of the protein’s primary structure, the domain is an interval of amino acids that can evolve and function independently.
Recall that Mendel’s first law states that for any factor, an individual randomly assigns one of its two alleles to its offspring. Yet this law does not state anything regarding the relationship with which alleles for different factors will be inherited.
Searching Through the Haystack In “Finding a Motif in DNA”, we searched a given genetic string for a motif; however, this problem assumed that we know the motif in advance. In practice, biologists often do not know exactly what they are looking for. Rather, they must hunt through several different genomes at the same timeContinue reading “Finding a Shared Motif”