In this post, you will find some great tools that I have been using since the beginning of my PhD. You may be familiar with most tools; but, I am sure you will find some tools that you have not heard before. Also, even the title mention “Life Scientists”, you will find some tools usefulContinue reading “Tools for Life Scientists”
Everyone I know either in academia or industry has one or two (or sometimes a mouthful) things to say about productivity. Some even say how productive they are. Yes, they are the ones to sacrifice their sleep to meet the deadlines. I am not one of those, nor will I be ever. If you areContinue reading “Right tool for productivity”
When cataloguing a collection of genetic strings, we should have an established system by which to organize them. The standard method is to organize strings as they would appear in a dictionary, so that “APPLE” precedes “APRON”, which in turn comes before “ARMOR”.
In “Transcribing DNA into RNA”, we mentioned that a strand of DNA is copied into a strand of RNA during transcription, but we neglected to mention how transcription is achieved.
In the nucleus, an enzyme (i.e., a molecule that accelerates a chemical reaction) called RNA polymerase (RNAP) initiates transcription by breaking the bonds joining complementary bases of DNA. It then creates a molecule called precursor mRNA, or pre-mRNA, by using one of the two strands of DNA as a template strand: moving down the template strand, when RNAP encounters the next nucleotide, it adds the complementary base to the growing RNA strand, with the provision that uracil must be used in place of thymine.
The war between viruses and bacteria has been waged for over a billion years. Viruses called bacteriophages (or simply phages) require a bacterial host to propagate, and so they must somehow infiltrate the bacterium; such deception can only be achieved if the phage understands the genetic framework underlying the bacterium’s cellular functions. The phage’s goal is to insert DNA that will be replicated within the bacterium and lead to the reproduction of as many copies of the phage as possible, which sometimes also involves the bacterium’s demise.