A Brief Introduction to Graph Theory

Networks arise everywhere in the practical world, especially in biology. Networks are prevalent in popular applications such as modeling the spread of disease, but the extent of network applications spreads far beyond popular science. Our first question asks how to computationally model a network without actually needing to render a picture of the network.

First, some terminology: graph is the technical term for a network; a graph is made up of hubs called nodes (or vertices), pairs of which are connected via segments/curves called edges. If an edge connects nodesvandw, then it is denoted byv,w(or equivalentlyw,v).

- an edge
*v*,*w*is incident to nodes*v*and*w*; we say that*v*and*w*are adjacent to each other; - the degree of
*v*is the number of edges incident to it; - a walk is an ordered collection of edges for which the ending node of one edge is the starting node of the next (e.g., {
*v*1,*v*2}, {*v*2,*v*3}, {*v*3,*v*4}, etc.); - a path is a walk in which every node appears in at most two edges;
- path length is the number of edges in the path;
- a cycle is a path whose final node is equal to its first node (so that every node is incident to exactly two edges in the cycle) and
- the distance between two vertices is the length of the shortest path connecting them.

Graph theory is the abstract mathematical study of graphs and their properties.

#### Problem

A graph whose nodes have all been labeled can be represented by an adjacency list, in which each row of the list contains the two node labels corresponding to a unique edge.

A directed graph (or digraph) is a graph containing directed edges, each of which has an orientation. That is, a directed edge is represented by an arrow instead of a line segment; the starting and ending nodes of an edge form its tail and head, respectively. The directed edge with tail *v* and head *w* is represented by (*v*, *w*) (but *not* by (*w*, *v*)). A directed loop is a directed edge of the form (*v*, *v*).

For a collection of strings and a positive integer *k*, the overlap graph for the strings is a directed graph O*k* in which each string is represented by a node, and string *s* is connected to string *t* with a directed edge when there is a length *k *suffix of *s* that matches a length *k* prefix of *t*, as long as *s* ≠ *t*; we demand *s* ≠ *t* to prevent directed loops in the overlap graph (although directed cycles may be present).

##### Given

A collection of DNA strings in FASTA format having total length at most 10 kbp.

##### Return

The adjacency list corresponding to O3. You may return edges in any order.

#### Solution

For this problem, we will be using a python library called **Bio**, but only SeqIO package:

```
from Bio import SeqIO
k = 3
```

Open and read the FASTA file:

```
with open("rosalind_grph.txt") as file:
fasta_sequences = list(SeqIO.parse(file, 'fasta'))
```

Now, read each FASTA sequence and return the adjacency list:

```
for fasta1 in fasta_sequences:
for fasta2 in fasta_sequences:
name1, sequence1 = fasta1.id, str(fasta1.seq)
name2, sequence2 = fasta2.id, str(fasta2.seq)
if sequence1 == sequence2:
continue
suffix = sequence1[-k:]
prefix = sequence2[:k]
if prefix == suffix:
print(name1, name2)
```

###### Important note:

This problem is taken from rosalind.info. Please visit ROSALIND to find out more about Bioinformatics problems. You may also clink onto links for the definitions of each terminology.